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General References

Stein BE, Stanford TR (2008) Multisensory integration: current issues from the perspective of the single neuron. Nat Rev Neurosci. 9(4): 255-66.

Driver, J. and T. Noesselt (2008) Multisensory interplay reveals cross- modal influences on 'sensory specific' brain regions, neural responses, and judgments. Neuron, 57(1): 11-23.

Ghazanfar, A.A and C.E. Schroeder (2006) Is neocortex essentially multisensory? Trends Cogn Sci, 10(6): 278-85.

Calvert, G.A., C. Spence, and B.E. Stein, eds. The Handbook of Multisensory Processes. 2004, The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

Stein, B.E. and M.A. Meredith, The Merging of the Senses. 1993, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Physiological Principles - Animal Models

Meredith, M.A. and B.E. Stein (1996) Spatial determinants of multi-sensory integration in cat superior colliculus neurons. J. Neurophysiol, 75(5): 1843-57.

Meredith, M.A., J.W. Nemitz, and B.E. Stein (1987) Determinants of multisensory integration in superior colliculus neurons. 1 Temporal factors. J. Neuroscience, 7: 3215-3229.

Meredith, M.A. and B.E. Stein (1986) Spatial factors determine the activity of multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus. Brain Res. 365: 350-354.

Meredith, M.A. and B.E. Stein (1986) Visual, auditory, and somat-osensory convergence on cells in superior colliculus results in multisensory integration. J Neurophysiol. 56: 640-662.

Meredith, M.A. and B.E. Stein (1985) Descending efferents from the superior colliculus relay integrated multisensory information. Science, 227(4687): 657-9.

Meredith, M.A. and B.E. Stein (1983) Interactions among converging sensory inputs in the superior colliculus. Science. 221: 389-391.

Behavioral Facilitation - Human Studies

Hershenson, M. (1962) Reaction time as a measure of intersensory facilitation. J. Exp. Psychol. 63: 289-293.

Andreassi, J.L. and J.R. Greco (1975) Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential. Physiol. Psychol. 3: 189-194.

Hughes, H.C., et al. (1994) Visual-auditory interactions in sensorimotor processing: saccades versus manual responses. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 20(1): 131-53.

Frens, M.A., A.J. Van Opstal, and R.F. Van Der Willigen (1995) Spatial and temporal factors determine auditory-visual interactions in human saccadic eye movements. Percept. Psychophys. 57(6): 802-16.

Stein, B., et al. (1996) Enhancement of perceived visual intensity by auditory stimuli: a psychophysical analysis. J Cogn Neurosci. 8: 497-506.

Harrington, L.K. and C.K. Peck (1998) Spatial disparity affects visual-auditory interactions in human sensorimotor processing. Exp Brain Res, 122(2): 247-52.

Corneil, B.D., et al. (2002) Auditory-visual interactions subserving goal-directed saccades in complex scene. J Neurophysiol. 88(1): 438-54.

Frassinetti, F., N. Bolognini, and E. Ladavas (2002) Enhancement of visual perception by crossmodal visuo-auditory interactions. Exp Brain Res 147(3): 332-43.

Forster, B., et al. (2002) Redundant target effect and intersensory facilitation from visual-tactile interactions in simple reaction time. Exp Brain Res 143(4): 480-7.

Hairston, W.D., et al. (2003) Visual localization ability influences cross-modal bias. J Cogn Neurosci. 15(1): 20-9.

Odgaard, E.C., Y. Arieh, and L.E. Marks (2003) Cross-modal enhancement of perceived brightness: sensory interaction versus response bias. Percept Psychophys. 65(1): 123-32.

Lovelace, C.T., B.E. Stein, and M.T. Wallace (2003) An irrelevant light enhances auditory detection in humans: a psychophysical analysis of multisensory integration in stimulus detection. Cognitive Brain Research 17: 447-453.

Colonius, H. and A. Diederich (2004) Multisensory interaction in saccadic reaction time: a time-window-of-integration model. J Cogn Neurosci. 16(6): 1000-9.

Diederich, A. and H. Colonius (2004) Bimodal and trimodal multisensory enhancement: effects of stimulus onset and intensity on reaction time. Percept Psychophys. 66(8): 1388-404.

Multisensory Development

Carriere, B.N., et al. (2007) Visual deprivation alters the devel-opment of cortical multisensory integration. J Neurophysiol. 98(5): 2858-67.

Wallace, M.T. and B.E. Stein (2007) Early experience determines how the senses will interact. J Neurophysiol. 97(1): 921-6.

Jiang, W., H. Jiang, and B.E. Stein (2006) Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus. J Neurophysiol. 95(3): 1380-96.

Wallace, M.T., et al. (2006) The development of cortical multisensory integration. J Neurosci. 26(46): 11844-9.

Lewkowicz, D.J. and A.A. Ghazanfar (2006) The decline of cross-speciesintersensory perception in human infants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(17): 6771-4.

Lickliter, R. and L.E. Bahrick, Perceptual development and the origins of multisensory responsiveness, in The Handbook of Multisensory Processes, G.A. Calvert, C. Spence, and B.E. Stein, Editors. 2004, MIT Press: Cambridge, MA. p. 643-654.

Wallace, M.T., The development of multisensory integration, in The Handbook of Multisensory Processes, G.A. Calvert, C. Spence, and B.E. Stein, Editors. 2004, The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA. p. 683-700.

Wallace, M.T., et al. (2004) Visual experience is necessary for the development of multisensory integration. J Neurosci. 24(43): 9580-4.

Wallace, M.T. and B.E. Stein (2000) Onset of cross-modal synthesis in the neonatal superior colliculus is gated by the development of cortical influences. J Neurophysiol. 83(6): 3578-82.

Wallace, M.T. and B.E. Stein (1997) Development of multisensory neurons and multisensory integration in cat superior colliculus. J Neurosci. 17(7): 2429-2444.

Lewkowicz, D.J., Development of intersensory perception in human infants, in The Development of Intersensory Perception: Comparative Perspectives, D.J. Lewkowicz and R. Lickliter, Editors. 1994, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ. p. 165-203.

King, A.J., et al. (1988) Developmental plasticity in the visual and auditory representations in the mammalian superior colliculus. Nature, 332: 73-76.

Our Books

Multisensory Processes: The Auditory Perspective


Auditory behavior, perception, and cognition are all shaped by information from other sensory systems. This volume examines this multi-sensory view of auditory function at levels of analysis ranging from the single neuron to neuroimaging in human clinical populations.


The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processing


It has become accepted in the neuroscience community that perception and performance are quintessentially multisensory by nature. Using the full palette of modern brain imaging and neuroscience methods, The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes details current understanding in the neural bases for these phenomena as studied across species, stages of development, and clinical statuses.